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Chapter 2: Histopathology of the Skin
A. Skin biopsy

Skin biopsy

B. Dermatopathology

a. Epidermis
1. Acanthosis (epidermal hyperplasia)
2. Epidermal atrophy (epidermal hypoplasia)
3. Hyperkeratosis
4. Parakeratosis
5. Dyskeratosis
6. Hypergranulosis
7. Granular degeneration, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
8. Spongiosis, intercellular edema
9. Intracellular edema (ballooning degeneration)
10. Acantholysis
11. Blister, Bulla
12. Pustule
13. Exocytosis (cell infiltration into the epidermis)

b. Dermo-epidermal junction
1. Vacuolar degeneration (hydropic degeneration)
2. Melanin synthesis abnormality

c. Dermis
1. Inflammatory cell infiltration
2. Granuloma
3. Giant cell
4. Changes in connective tissue
5. Deposition of foreign substances

d. Subcutaneous fat tissue
1. Panniculitis
2. Other changes in fat tissue

C. Immunohistochemistry

1. Immunofluorescence (IF)
1) Direct IF
2) Indirect IF
3) Complement IF

2. Immunoenzyme method

D. Electron microscopy (EM) and immuno EM

Electron microscopy (EM) and immuno EM

Contents TOP
Author Profile
Structure and
Function of the Skin
Histopathology of the Skin
Immunology of the Skin
Skin Lesions
Diagnosis of Skin Diseases
Treatment of Skin Diseases
Eczema and Dermatitis
Urticaria, Prurigo and Pruritus
Erythema, Erythroderma
(Exfoliative Dermatitis)
Drug-Induced Skin Reactions
and GVHD
Vasculitis, Purpura and
Other Vascular Diseases
Collagen Diseases
Physiochemical Injury and
Photosensitive Diseases
Blistering and Pustular Diseases
Disorders of Abnormal Keratinization
Disorders of Skin Color
Metabolic Disorders
Disorders of the Dermis and Subcutaneous Fat
Disorders of the Skin Appendages
Nevus and Neurocutaneous Syndrome
Benign Skin Tumors
Malignant Skin Tumors and Melanomas
Viral Infections
Bacterial Infections
Fungal Diseases
Mycobacterial Infections
Sexually Transmitted
Skin Diseases Caused by Arthropods and Other Noxious Animals
Genodermatoses: Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis
Dermoscopy: Appendix