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Chapter 1: Structure and Function of the Skin
A. Skin surface

Skin surface

B. Epidermis

a. Structure and cells of the dermis
1. Basal cell layer
2. Suprabasal cell layer
3. Granular cell layer
4. Horny cell layer
5. Other cells

b. Adhesion of keratinocytes
1. Adhesion between keratinocytes

c. Keratinization
1. Keratin
2. Cornified cell envelope
3. Horny layer (stratum corneum) intercellular lipids
4. Exfoliation of horny cells

d. Melanocytes and melanin synthesis
1. Form and distribution of melanocytes
2. Biosynthesis of melanin
3. Melanosome
4. Functions of melanin

e. Langerhans cell

f. α-dendritic cell

g. Merkel cell

C. Dermis

a. Structure of the dermis

b. Interstitial components
1. Collagen fibers
2. Elastic fibers
3. Ground substance, Matrix

c. Cellular components
1. Fibroblast
2. Histiocyte
3. Mast cell
4. Plasma cell
5. Dermal dendrocyte

d. Vascular channels and nerves
1. Blood vessels
2. Lymphatic vessel
3. Nervous system
1) Sensory nerve
2) Autonomic nerves

D. Subcutaneous fat tissue

Subcutaneous fat tissue

E. Appendages

a. Hair apparatus
1. Hair follicle
1) Connective tissue sheath (CTS)
2) Outer root sheath (ORS)
3) Inner root sheath (IRS) 4) Hair bulb
2. Hair shaft
3. Hair cycle

b. Arrector pili muscle

c. Sebaceous gland

d. Sweat glands
1. Eccrine sweat glands
2. Apocrine sweat glands

e. Nail
1. Nail plate
2. Nail matrix
3. Nail fold
4. Nail bed


Contents TOP
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Structure and
Function of the Skin
Histopathology of the Skin
Immunology of the Skin
Skin Lesions
Diagnosis of Skin Diseases
Treatment of Skin Diseases
Eczema and Dermatitis
Urticaria, Prurigo and Pruritus
Erythema, Erythroderma
(Exfoliative Dermatitis)
Drug-Induced Skin Reactions
and GVHD
Vasculitis, Purpura and
Other Vascular Diseases
Collagen Diseases
Physiochemical Injury and
Photosensitive Diseases
Blistering and Pustular Diseases
Disorders of Abnormal Keratinization
Disorders of Skin Color
Metabolic Disorders
Disorders of the Dermis and Subcutaneous Fat
Disorders of the Skin Appendages
Nevus and Neurocutaneous Syndrome
Benign Skin Tumors
Malignant Skin Tumors and Melanomas
Viral Infections
Bacterial Infections
Fungal Diseases
Mycobacterial Infections
Sexually Transmitted
Skin Diseases Caused by Arthropods and Other Noxious Animals
Genodermatoses: Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis
Dermoscopy: Appendix